Next site >
IODP Expedition 320:
Pacific Equatorial Age Transect 1
Site U1331 Summary
PDF file is available for download.
22 March 2009
One of the
objectives of the combined Pacific Equatorial Age Transect (PEAT) Science
Program (IODP Expeditions 320 & 321) comprises obtaining palaeoceanographic
records from the Pacific ocean during the time period around the "Early Eocene
Climatic Optimum (EECO)", targeted by Site U1331. ODP Leg 199 drilled a N-S
transect across the equatorial region at about 56 Ma. Sites on this transect
had generally drifted below the CCD by 52-53 Ma. Thus we presently lack
calcareous sediments from the region of the equatorial circulation system
during this time of maximum Cenozoic warmth (Zachos et al., 2001), elevated
atmospheric pCO2 concentrations (Lowenstein & Demicco, 2007),
and a shallow early Eocene CCD (3200-3300 m; Lyle et al., 2002a; Lyle et al.,
2005; Rea and Lyle, 2005). Site U1331 (PEAT-1C) has been located on crust with
a planned age of about 53 Ma in order to intercept the interval between 53 and
50 Ma in basal carbonate sediments above the CCD, an interval that was poorly
sampled on the 56 Ma transect of ODP Leg 199, and forms the oldest component of
Expeditions 320 and 321.
(non-carbonate) accumulation rates at this time were estimated to be moderate,
showing only slight increases in some of the more northern sites on the ODP Leg
199 latitudinal transect (Sites 1215, 1220; Lyle et al., 2002). The records of
Leg 199 suggest that the very shallow CCD of this early Eocene time appears to
deepen to the north, perhaps suggesting a northern source for the bottom
waters. Sites targeting this time interval would ideally give us sediments with
sufficient carbonate material to better constrain the isotopic and biotic
characteristics of the near surface equatorial waters.
We have positioned Site U1331 to
the south of the estimated paleo-equatorial position at the target age in order
to maximize the time that drill sites remain within the equatorial zone (i.e.,
±2¡ of the equator), to allow for some southward bias of the equatorial
sediment mound relative to the hotspot frame of reference (Knappenberger,
2000), and to place the interval of maximum interest above the basal
hydrothermal sediments. We located the site using the digital age-grid of
seafloor age from Müller et al., 1997, heavily modified and improved with
additional magnetic anomaly picks from Petronotis (1991), Petronotis et al.
(1994) and DSDP/ODP basement ages, as well as the magnetostratigraphic
designations of Cande et al. (1989) and Cande and Kent (1995). For this grid,
each point is then backrotated in time to zero age, using the fixed-hotspot
stage-poles from Koppers et al. (2001) and Engebretson et al. (1985), and the
paleo-pole data from Sager and Pringle (1988). From the backtracked latitudes
for each grid point we then obtained the paleo-equator at the crustal age by contouring.
A secondary objective of the PEAT program is to provide a limited depth
transect for several Cenozoic key horizons, such as the Eocene Oligocene
transition (Coxall et al., 2005). For this objective, Site U1331 will form the
deepest paleodepth constraint.
Site U1331 is the
north-westernmost site to be drilled during the PEAT program, and is situated
about 6¼ north of the Clipperton fracture zone, 3¼ south of the Clarion
Fracture zone, and about 90 nautical miles (ca. 170 km) to the east of the
nearest ODP Site 1221.
During the Site
Survey for Site U1331, we found a region of abyssal hills bound by a large
volcanic rise to the east, and several seamounts to the SW. The abyssal hills are more widely
spaced than at previous sites, and trend NW rather than northeast. We noted a
change in trend of abyssal hills between our next site PEAT-2C and U1331,
perhaps associated with the Pacific plate reorganization that occurred at about
50 Ma (Rea and Dixon, 1983).
Three holes were cored at Site U1331.
provided high quality and recovery APC cored sediments from the mudline to
138.2 meters below seafloor (Core U1331-15H), after which we switched to the
XCB cutting shoe to determine the exact position of a predicted chert horizon.
XCB coring advanced to 157.3 mDSF, above a ca. 20 meter cherty interval with
very poor or no recovery. Below this horizon, XCB Core 22X recovered a short,
ca. 42 cm long interval of radiolarian and carbonate ooze above basalt in a ca.
10 m interval of soft sediments above basement. Basement was reached at 188.5
meters core depth below seafloor (mCSF).
triple-combo logging run was obtained for the full length between basement
(established at 190 m wireline log depth below seafloor (WSF)) and the depth of
the BHA at around 80 mDSF. A planned FMS logging run was abandoned due to
problems with the logging winch. A malfunctioning wireline heave-compensator
did not impede the logging due to calm seas. The logging data confirmed a
cherty horizon between ca. 157 and 177 m CSF.
Hole U1331B was
vertically offset by 5m, and provided good overlap with sediments from U1331A
over the entire recovered interval. The cherty horizon was drilled with a
center-bit, and both an APC and XCB coring attempt of the soft sediment
underneath was unsuccessful.
Hole U1331C was
designed to provide stratigraphic overlap, and confirm stratigraphic
correlations made between Sites U1331A and U1331B. Three APC cores were taken
above the cherty interval, which was then again drilled through with a dropped
center bit. An attempt was made to clean the borehole annulus with drilling
mud, followed by two successful APC cores that recovered 14 m of soft sediment
and chert fragments between 177 mCSF and basement at 189 mCSF. The basal part
contains a red stained lithology within carbonate ooze. No basement rock was
recovered in U1331C, but the APC cutting shoe indentation and drilling
characteristics indicated basement was encountered. Rate of coring penetration
averaged around 135 meters per 24 h.
column at Site U1331 has a strong resemblance to that of ODP Site 1220, but
with noteworthy sharp erosive contacts concentrated within the upper two thirds
of the section. Six meters of Pleistocene-Pleiocene clay (Lithological unit I)
overlie lower Oligocene to lowermost Oligocene nannofossil ooze (Lithological
unit IIa), with a sharp lithological change at the Eocene Oligocene transition
(~26 mCSF) to alternating radiolarian ooze with nannofossils and nannofossil
ooze (Unit IIb), grading into radiolarian ooze with nannofossils and clay with
sporadic occurrences of chert (Lithological Unit IIIa), and the basal cherty
interval (Lithological unit IIIb, down to ca. 157 mCSF). Lithological unit IV,
below the chert horizon and between 157 to 177 mCSF is comprised of radiolarian
ooze and nannofossil ooze with hydrothermal red staining, deposited on top of
mid-ocean ridge basalt (Lithological Unit V, at 188.5 m CSF). Carbonate content
approaches 80% in Lithological unit IIa within the Oligocene nannofossil oozes,
and cycles between 0 and 40% in the middle Eocene section (units II and III).
There is a concentration of sharp erosive contacts apparent in the interval
between 80 to 120 mCSF, with calcareous material dominating the basal portion
of these contacts, and then fining upwards in grain size into the radiolarian
oozes. Rarely, the sediment above a sharp contact contained well-rounded clasts
up to 1 cm in diameter (Interval U1331B-10H-6, 117-130 cm).
microfossil groups have been found in sediments from Site U1331, and provide a
consistent and coherent biostratigraphic succession from basement up to the top
of Lithological unit II. Nannofossils are common in the Oligocene and lower
Eocene, but sporadic from the upper Eocene due to dissolution. Most of middle
Eocene sediments commonly contain nannofossils, with several barren intervals.
Radiolarians are common to abundant throughout the section. Radiolarian and
nannofossil datums and zonal determinations agree, and range from nannofossil
zone NP12 in the basal carbonate section (~51-53 million years before
present, Ma) to NP 24, and radiolarian zones RP8 just above basement through to
RP21 (late Oligocene, older than 25 Ma) in the uppermost section, below the
Pleistocene clays. Both radiolarian and nannofossil assemblages contain
reworked, older components (deeper than ~50 mCSF), but within a coherent and
ordered stratigraphy. Planktic foraminifers are generally absent, except
sporadic samples, often associated with sediment just above sharp lithological
contacts and also in the basal carbonate section (provisionally zones E5/E6).
Benthic foraminifers are generally rare, and indicate lower bathyal to upper
abyssal paleodepths. They are also frequently found in the graded coarse
sediment above the base of sharp contacts, but suggest there is no apparent
difference in the depth habitat between benthic foraminifers from just above
sharp contacts and other parts of the section. Marked differences in
productivity indicators have been observed between the Eocene and Oligocene
parts of the sections, which will help us to achieve one of the PEAT
objectives. Diatoms have been observed throughout the column, but will have to
await analysis by specialists not onboard Expedition 320. Apparent
sedimentation rates, as implied by the biostratigraphic age determinations,
vary throughout the section. The radiolarian rich section between ca. 80 mCSF
and basement was deposited at a rate of 10 m/Myr, while the late middle Eocene
to Oligocene section was deposited at a rate around 4 m/ Myr, with an apparent
inflection between 60-80 CSF. The chert horizon spans a time interval of around 2-3 Myr.
The presence of all major fossil groups as well as a detailed
magnetostratigraphy will allow us to achieve one of the main PEAT objectives arrive
at an integrated Cenozoic stratigraphy and age calibration (Pälike et al.,
A full physical
property program was run on cores from all three holes, comprising whole-round
multi-sensor core logger measurements of magnetic susceptibility, bulk density,
P-wave velocity, non-contact resistivity and natural gamma radiation, followed
by discrete measurements of color reflectance, index moisture and density
properties, sound velocities and thermal conductivity. Bulk density
measurements show a marked increase in the carbonate rich Oligocene section.
Magnetic susceptibility measurements are variable throughout the section,
allowing a detailed correlation between different holes, and picking out sharp
contacts and clay layers by increased susceptibilities. Natural gamma radiation
measurements are elevated by an order of magnitude in the surfacial clay layer.
Porosity values are generally high in the radiolarian rich sediments (80%), and
decreased within the Oligocene carbonate section, which also shows higher
thermal conductivity values. Discrete physical property measurements will prove
useful to calibrate the multi-sensor track velocity and density estimates.
Discrete sound velocity measurements are significantly higher (50-100 m/s) than
magnetic susceptibility measurements, Holes U1331A, U1331B and U1331C can be
spliced to form a continuous section to at least 140 mCSF or 150 m core
composite depth (CCSF), with no apparent gaps. Core expansion is approximately
15%. It is possible that cores from U1331C can provide additional spliced
section down to the top of the cherty interval at around 157 mCSF. Between ca.
177 and 188.5 mCSF Cores U1331A-22X, U1331C-16H and U1331C-17H achieved our
Site objective of recovering carbonate bearing material from the time interval
just after 52 Ma.
A full range of
paleomagnetic analyses was conducted on cores and samples from Site U1331. Aims
are to determine the magnetostratigraphy, to study the geomagnetic field
behaviour, environmental magnetism as well as the Pacific plate paleogeography.
Shipboard analyses conducted so far suggest that a useful magnetic signal is
preserved in most APC cored intervals, helped by the use of an orientation
("Flexit") tool during coring. Preliminary comparison of biostatigraphic data
and changes in magnetic paleo-declinations suggest the recovery of Oligocene
magnetochrons to base of the middle Eocene (C21n, ~47 Ma). Paleomagnetic
directions from discrete samples agree well with those from split-core results.
shipboard suite of geochemical analysis of porewater, organic and inorganic
properties was conducted on sediments from U1331, including a pilot study of
high-resolution "Rhizon" porewater sampling, which does not require the cutting
of core whole rounds for squeezing. Carbonate coulometry yielded carbonate
concentrations of around 80% in the Oligocene nannofossil ooze, and sporadic
horizons with up to 40% CaCO3 in the radiolarian rich oozes. Alkalinity values
range between 2.5 and 3 mM throughout the section. More analyses are currently
underway. Additional ephemeral samples were taken for shore-based microbiology
and permeability studies.
provided valuable information to constrain the interval of chert formation
within the borehole, and further interpretation will aid in interpretations of
carbonate content and lithologies. Integration with the seismic data will allow
further improvements with the regional seismic interpretations. Data from Site
U1331 indicate that the top of seismic horizon "P2" (Lyle et al., 2002b),
correlates with the top of the chert section.
Cande, S.C., J.L. LaBrecque, R.L. Larson, W.C. Pitman III,
X. Golovchenko, and W.F. Haxby, 1989. Magnetic lineations of the world's ocean
basins. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Map Series.
Cande, S.C., and Kent, D.V., 1995. Revised calibration of
the geomagnetic polarity timescale for the Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic. J.
Geophys. Res., 100:6093-6095.
H. K. Coxall, P. A. Wilson, H. Palike, C. H. Lear, and J.
Backman, 2005.. Rapid stepwise onset of antarctic glaciation and deeper calcite
compensation in the paciŞc ocean. Nature, 433(7021):53-57.
Engebretson, D.C., Cox, A., and Gordon, R.G., 1985. Relative
Motions Between Oceanic and Continental Plates in the Pacific Basin. Spec. Pap. - Geol. Soc. Am., 206.
Gripp, A.E., and Gordon, R.G., 1990. Current plate
velocities relative to the hotspots incorporating the NUVEL-1 global plate
motion model. Geophys. Res. Lett., 17:1109-1112.
Koppers, A.A.P., J. Phipps Morgan, J. W. Morgan, H.
Staudigel, 2001. Testing the fixed hotspot hypothesis using 40Ar/39Ar age
progressions along seamount trails, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 185, 237-252.
Knappenberger, M., 2000, Sedimentation rates and Pacific
plate motion calculated using seismic cross sections of the Neogene equatorial
sediment bulge: Boise, ID, Boise State University, MSc. Thesis
Lyle, M., P. A. Wilson, T. R. Janecek et al., Init. Rep., Proc. Ocean Drill. Prog. 199, Ocean Drilling Program, College Station, TX, 2002a. doi:10.2973/odp.proc.ir.199.2002
Lyle, M., Liberty, L.M., Moore Jr., T.C., and Rea, D.K.,
2002b, Development of a seismic stratigraphy for the Paleogene sedimentary
section, central equatorial Pacific Ocean, Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling
Program, Initial Reports, v. 199. doi:10.2973/odp.proc.ir.199.104.2002
Lyle, M.W., Olivarez Lyle, A., Backman, J., and Tripati, A.,
2005, Biogenic sedimentation in the Eocene equatorial Pacific: the stuttering
greenhouse and Eocene carbonate compensation depth, in Lyle, M., Wilson, P.,
Janecek, T.R., and Firth, J., eds., Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results, Leg 199: College Station TX, Ocean Drilling Program. doi:10.2973/odp.proc.sr.199.219.2005
Lowenstein, T. K. & Demicco, R. V. Elevated Eocene
atmospheric CO2 and its subsequent decline. Science, 313, 1928 (2007).
Müller, R. D., Roest, W- R., Royer, J.-Y., Gahagan, L. M.,
Sclater, J. G.,D. Digital isochrones of the worldÕs ocean floor. J. Geophys.
Res., 102(B2), 3211-3214, 1997.
Pälike, H., Norris, R.D., Herrle, J.O., Wilson, P.A.,
Coxall, H.K., Lear, C.H., Shackleton, N.J., Tripati, A.K., and Wade, B.S.,
2006. The heartbeat of the Oligocene climate system. Science,
Petronotis, K.E., 1991. Paleomagnetic studies of the
skewness of Pacific plate marine magnetic anomalies 25-32R: implications
for anomalous skewness and the motion of the Pacific plate and hotspots [Ph.D. thesis]. Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL.
Petronotis, K.E., Gordon, R.G., and Acton, G.D., 1994. A 57
Ma Pacific plate paleomagnetic pole determined from a skewness analysis of
crossings of marine magnetic anomaly 25r. Geophys.J. Int., 118:529-554.
Rea, D.K., and Dixon, J.M., 1983, Late Cretaceous and
Paleogene tectonic evolution of the North Pacific Ocean, Earth and Planetary
Science Letters, v. 65, p. 145-146.
Rea, D.K., and Lyle, M.W., 2005. Paleogene calcite
compensation depth in the eastern subtropical Pacific: answers and questions.
Paleoceanography, 20(1):PA1012. doi:10.1029/2004PA001064
Sager, W.W., and M.S. Pringle, 1988. Mid-Cretaceous to Early
Tertiary apparent polar wander path of the Pacific plate, J. Geophys. Res., 93, 11753-11771.
Shackleton, N. J., M. A. Hall, I. Raffi, L. Tauxe, J. Zachos
2000, Astronomical calibration age for the Miocene-Oligocene boundary, Geology, 28: 447-450.
Shipboard Scientific Party, 2004. Leg 2008 summary. In
Zachos, J.C., Kroon, D., Blum, P., et al., Proc ODP, Init. Repts., 208: College Station TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 1-112. doi:10.2973/odp.proc.ir.208.101.2004
Zachos, J., Pagani, M., Sloan, L., Thomas, E. & Billups,
K., 2001. Trends, rhythms, and aberrations in global climate 65 Ma to present. Science, 292, 685-693.